[98], States of emergency were declared in Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and the Maldives. It also benefited from the fact that the earthquake proceeded more slowly in the northern rupture zone, greatly reducing the energy of the water displacements in that region. So conclusions for the future work, establishment of guidelines requiring high, quality control for the collection of the ante, mortem and post mortem data is essential for, an efficient disaster management including a. Fernandez-Rodriguez A, Atienza I, Capilla J. Garcia-Hirschfeld J, Martinez P, Vallejo G. Garcia O, Garcia E, Real P, Alvarez D, Leon A, Sancho M. Challenges of DNA profiling in mass, Brenner CH, Weir BS. Of the three, the third was the most devastating. [134], Before 2004, the tsunami created in both Indian and Pacific Ocean waters by the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa, thought to have resulted in anywhere from 36,000 to 120,000 deaths, had probably been the deadliest in the region. It was necessary to adapt the different teams, to a common strategy. [82][83][84] The significant shielding of Port Blair and Campbell Bay by steep mountainous outcrops contributed to the relatively low wave heights at these locations, whereas the open terrain along the eastern coast at Malacca and Hut Bay contributed to the great height of the tsunami waves.[83][85]. Through the efforts of thousands of citizens, including recovery workers, medical examiners, and forensic scientists, the identification of approximately 1,500 victims had been accomplished through June 2003 (the majority of these identifications were made within the first 8-12 months). In deep ocean water, tsunami waves form only a low, broad hump, barely noticeable and harmless, which generally travels at high speed of 500 to 1,000 km/h (310 to 620 mph); in shallow water near coastlines, a tsunami slows down to only tens of kilometres per hour but, in doing so, forms large destructive waves. The high potential of, identifications raised the hope for successful, victims could be identified by several teams. Le tsunami. It also causes the death of plants and important soil micro-organisms. Being rich in coral reefs, the Maldives provides an opportunity for scientists to assess the impact of a tsunami on coral atolls. To present individual body identification efforts, as part of the World Trade Center (WTC) mass disaster identification project. After the tsunami, there was some concern that the country might be submerged entirely and become uninhabitable. [62], Lhoknga is a small coastal community about 13 km (8.1 mi) south-west of Banda Aceh, located on a flat coastal plain in between two rainforest-covered hills, overlooking a large bay and famous for its large swathe of white sandy beach and surfing activities. victim at Site Ib matched concerning the age, transitional status with milk and permanent, missing tooth 35 (second premolar in the left, was carried and revealed the missing tooth, 35 in the lower jaw (Fig. [needs update][129] UNEP has decided to earmark a US$1 million emergency fund and to establish a Task Force to respond to requests for technical assistance from countries affected by the tsunami. [72] Estimates based on the state of the shoreline and a high-water mark on a nearby building place the tsunami 7.5–9 m (25–30 ft) above sea level and 2–3 m (6 ft 7 in–9 ft 10 in) higher than the top of the train. Furthermore, at the coastal town of Kanyakumari, the seabed was exposed briefly before a large wall of water can be seen on the horizon and subsequently flooding the town. [81] In Chuckchucha and Lapati, the tsunami arrived in a three-wave cycle with a maximum tsunami wave height of 12 m (39 ft). There were two to five tsunamis of varying heights that coincided with the local high tide in some areas. It took a relatively long time to reach Struisbaai at the southernmost point of Africa, probably because of the broad continental shelf off South Africa and because the tsunami would have followed the South African coast from east to west. The tsunami severely affected the Maldives at a distance of 2,500 km (1,600 mi) from the epicentre. Interpol plays an important role in these cases. Water sanitation and health: WHO technical notes for emergencies. [57][58] Oral traditions developed from previous earthquakes helped the aboriginal tribes escape the tsunami. The identification of victims in cases of mass disasters is still a great challenge for all concerned. This included a comparison of, the results from the odonto-stomatological, released body with the documentation of the, The forensic molecular genetic investigation, DVI teams, especially to identify victims, lacking other relevant findings. At the end of the examination, largest problem was the advanced stage of. Waves nearly three stories high devastated the Indian Air Force base, located just south of Malacca. The Persson Cabinet was heavily criticized for its inaction. The province of Phang Nga was the most affected area in Thailand. Bei der Beurteilung von Verletzungen sind Suizide, Suizidversuche, Selbstbeschädigungen einerseits, Unfälle und Unglücksfälle sowie Körperverletzungs- und Tötungsdelikte andererseits zu differenzieren. 15). These problems also made the delivery of relief aid more challenging. According to eyewitness accounts, the tsunami came from the north and south. Newly designed primer pairs with annealing positions close to the repeat units of the STR loci HUMFES, HUMTH01 and HUMTPOX were used for amplification. methods. The high potential of forensic odontology allowed approximately 90% of the victims to be identified. Given the highly degraded nature of the skeletal remains received by Bode, an advanced DNA extraction procedure was developed to increase the quantity of DNA recovery and reduce the co-purification of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification inhibitors. Development of a quality, high throughput DNA, analysis procedure for skeletal samples to assist, with the identification of victims from the World, ei Massenunfällen in der ehemaligen DDR -. from the femur were taken, at first 10 cm, later two 5 cm pieces. It was an undersea megathrust earthquake that registered a magnitude of 9.1–9.3 Mw, reaching a Mercalli intensity up to IX in certain areas. 1,046 victims were identified on, the basis of one type of data (962 dental, 71, fingerprints, 10 physical, and three DNA), and 66 others identified by combinations of, data types (Center for Disease Control and. Helicopter surveys showed entire settlements virtually destroyed with destruction within miles inland, and only some mosques left standing. [43], The tsunami, like all others, behaved differently in deep water than in shallow water. The post mortem status of the teeth exhibited, approximately 90% of the victims could be, shown by a wrongly described tattoo and by, Starting with the establishment of the TTVI, nationalities were identified in this period, from these case files by matching them with, AM data. region. In some cases the special quality of, dentures gave information about the victim’s, identified German victims as a control of, plausibility. Thailand experienced the second largest tsunami run-up. The southernmost district of Thiruvananthpuram, however, escaped damage, possibly due to the wide turn of the diffracted waves at the peninsular tip. Tsunami run-up measurements along the Sri Lankan coasts are at 2.4–4.11 m (7 ft 10 in–13 ft 6 in). The only other recorded earthquakes of magnitude 9.0 or greater were off Kamchatka, Russia, on 4 November 1952 (magnitude 9.0)[22] and Tōhoku, Japan (magnitude 9.1) in March 2011. [99] The European nation hardest hit was Sweden, with a death toll of 543. [16], The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was initially documented as having a moment magnitude of 8.8. Oder: Die Bedeutung anatomischer Diagramme, Differenzen zwischen ante-mortem- und post-mortem-Befunden bei zahnärztlichen Massnahmen zur Identifizierung von unbekannten verstorbenen Personen /, Problems in Mass-Disaster Dental Identification: A Retrospective Review, Development of a Quality, High Throughput DNA Analysis Procedure for Skeletal Samples to Assist with the Identification of Victims from the World Trade Center Attacks, STR analysis of artificially degraded DNA - Results of a collaborative European exercise, Enhanced Kinship Analysis and STR-based DNA Typing for Human Identification in Mass Fatality Incidents: The Swissair Flight 111 Disaster. [73] The tsunami heights were 5–6 m (16–20 ft) and the inundated depth was about 2 m (6.6 ft). Run up level up to 3.8 m (12 ft) have been measured.[81]. [73][page needed]. Thus, the state of Kerala was hit by the tsunami despite being on the western coast of India, and the western coast of Sri Lanka suffered substantial impacts. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Rüdiger Lessig, All content in this area was uploaded by Rüdiger Lessig, EXCLI Journal 2006;5:128-139 – ISSN 1611-2156. In some cases, there are no warning signs at all: the sea will suddenly swell without retreating, surprising many people and giving them little time to flee. Ce puissant tremblement de terre avait provoqué vingt minutes plus tard un … Coastal villages were destroyed by the tsunami waves. On 9 February 2005, President Bush asked Congress to increase the U.S. commitment to a total of US$950 million. [37] Because of tidal effects of the Moon, the length of a day increases at an average of 15 microseconds per year, so any rotational change due to the earthquake will be lost quickly. The seismic waves of the earthquake were felt across the planet; as far away as the U.S. state of Oklahoma, where vertical movements of 3 mm (0.12 in) were recorded. Some believe that the tsunami was divine punishment for lay Muslims shirking their daily prayers or following a materialistic lifestyle. Giritharan, S. Bardhan, S.R. [30], The energy released on the Earth's surface (ME, which is the seismic potential for damage) by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was estimated at 1.1×1017 joules (110 PJ; 26 Mt). Preliminary estimates indicate that 66% of the fishing fleet and industrial infrastructure in coastal regions have been destroyed by the wave surges, which will have adverse economic effects both at local and national levels. By February 2005, the earthquake's effects were still detectable as a 20 μm (0.02 mm; 0.0008 in) complex harmonic oscillation of the Earth's surface, which gradually diminished and merged with the incessant free oscillation of the Earth more than four months after the earthquake.[34]. Helping restore the quality of drinking water after the tsunami. Another amateur video captured by a German family at beach level, showed the tsunami appearing as a white horizontal line in the distant horizon, gradually becoming bigger (bore-like), engulfing a jet skier and lifting two police boats. However, most of these, Nowadays the transformation of the world economic power has shifted from Europe to Asia, especially to Southeast Asia where ASEAN countries are located. Annexe 2 « Thèmes des Unes consacrées par TF1 au tsunami » Annexe 3 « Visibilité du tsunami dans notre corpus»(26 décembre 2004 – fin 2009) Annexe 4 « Exemple de transcription. The first victim, investigations demonstrated already the full. [71] In Hambantota, tsunami run-ups measured 11 m (36 ft) with the greatest inundation distance of 2 km (1.2 mi). In addition, the release of, identified bodies was a part of the work. "Ministers Admit Handling of Tsunami Crisis Caused Suffering - Radio Sweden", "Indian Ocean Tsunami Information Center | Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System | What is IOTWS", National Aeronautics and Space Administration, "United Nations: World Food Programme: Report on the Tsunami Crisis", "The Asian Tsunami: Aid and Reconstruction after a Disaster", "15 tsunami aid staff executed in Sri Lanka", "Book Review: The Killing Sea by Richard Lewis", M9.1 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake & Tsunami, 2004, Asian Tsunami Anniversary – Thailand Tsunami Then and Now Comparison Series, Effect of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake on India, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2004_Indian_Ocean_earthquake_and_tsunami&oldid=996383940, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2018, All Wikipedia articles needing words, phrases or quotes attributed, Wikipedia articles needing words, phrases or quotes attributed from September 2018, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from May 2015, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 15–30 m (49–98 ft) on the west coast of Aceh, 6–12 m (20–39 ft) on the Banda Aceh coast, 3–6 m (9.8–19.7 ft) on the north coast of, 3 m (9.8 ft) on the opposite side of the coast of Weh Island facing the tsunami, 3–6 m (9.8–19.7 ft) along the west coast of Phuket island, 3 m (9.8 ft) along the south coast of Phuket island, 2 m (6 ft 7 in) along the east coast of Phuket island, 5 m (16 ft) at Hat Praphat (Ranong Coastal Resources Research Station), 3.4 m (11 ft) at Kerala, inundation distance of 0.5–1.5 km (0.31–0.93 mi) with 250 km (160 mi) of coastline affected, 4.5 m (15 ft) at the southern coastline of Tamil Nadu, inundation distance of 0.2–2 km (0.12–1.24 mi) with 100 km (62 mi) of coastline affected, 5 m (16 ft) at the eastern coastline of Tamil Nadu facing tsunami source, inundation distance of 0.4–1.5 km (0.25–0.93 mi) with 800 km (500 mi) of coastline affected, 4 m (13 ft) at Pondicherry, inundation distance of 0.2–2 km (0.12–1.24 mi) with 25 km (16 mi) of coastline affected, 2.2 m (7.2 ft) at Andhra Pradesh, inundation distance of 0.2–1 km (0.12–0.62 mi) with 985 km (612 mi) of coastline affected, 5 m (16 ft) in maximum tsunami height with a run-up of 4.24 m (13.9 ft) at Chiriyatapu Beach, 5.5 m (18 ft) in maximum tsunami height and run-up at Corbyn's Cove Beach, 6.6 m (22 ft) in maximum tsunami height and run-up of 4.63 m (15.2 ft) at Wandoor Beach, 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) at Diglipur and Rangat at North Andaman Island, 10–12 m (33–39 ft) high at Malacca (in Car Nicobar Island) and at Hut Bay on, 3 m (9.8 ft) high at Port Blair on South Andaman Island, 1.3–2.4 m (4 ft 3 in–7 ft 10 in) at North Male Atoll, Male Island, 2 m (6 ft 7 in) at North Male Atoll, Huhule Island, 1.7–2.8 m (5 ft 7 in–9 ft 2 in) at South Male Atoll, Embudhu Finothu, 2.5–3.3 m (8 ft 2 in–10 ft 10 in) at Laamu Atoll, Fonadhoo Island, 2.2–2.9 m (7 ft 3 in–9 ft 6 in) at Laamu Atoll, Gan Island, 2.3–3 m (7 ft 7 in–9 ft 10 in) at North Male Atoll, Dhiffushi Island, 2.2–2.4 m (7 ft 3 in–7 ft 10 in) at North Male Atoll, Huraa Island, more than 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) at North Male Atoll, Kuda Huraa Island, 0.6–2.3 m (2 ft 0 in–7 ft 7 in) around the Ayeyarwady delta, Paint the Sky with Stars, Selected Poetry in Remembrance of the Boxing Day Tsunami 2004 (2005) edited by, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 07:10. Moments later, the ocean floor was exposed to as much as 1 km (0.62 mi) in places, which was followed by a massive second and third tsunami wave. The inundation distance is about 5 km (3.1 mi). A tsunami that causes damage far away from its source is sometimes called a teletsunami and is much more likely to be produced by the vertical motion of the seabed than by horizontal motion. This was the highest number of casualties in a single African town and the largest tsunami death toll in a single town to the west of the Indian subcontinent. It mostly depended on the AM data, which are collected routinely by the Thai, authorities to issue a personal document such, be identified by fingerprints, and 38.5 % by, allow successful casework under difficult. After a pause of about another 100 seconds, the rupture continued northwards towards the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The results were assessed according to correct allele detection, peak height and balance as well as the occurrence of artefacts. 31.12.04 – 02.01.05 Site II – Wat Tha Cha, At site II victims stored in the hospital of, hand washing facilities, and the work had to, be stopped after sunset because no electricity, established. The significantly lower tsunami impact on the Maldives compared to Sri Lanka is mostly due to the topography and bathymetry of the atoll chain with offshore coral reefs, deep channels separating individual atolls and its arrival within low tide which decreased the power of the tsunami. Around the Indian Ocean, this rare sight reportedly induced people, especially children, to visit the coast to investigate and collect stranded fish on as much as 2.5 km (1.6 mi) of exposed beach, with fatal results. In: plantation of radio frequency identification. The strategies include careful balancing of the amount of template DNA and the PCR cycle numbers, the reaction volume and the amount of Taq polymerase. Similar kits such as the PowerPlex, initially sent to a scientific laboratory in, victims carried out by the DNA laboratory at, showed that autolysis was highly advanced, (Fig. Eyewitnesses recalled seeing many people flocking to the exposed beach to collect stranded fish. [17] Although the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center has accepted these new numbers, the United States Geological Survey has so far not changed its estimate of 9.1. The lower jaw had not been treated in his, IMC (Thai Tsunami Victim Identification Information, The large number of different teams and the, unusual circumstances in the Khao Lak area. Anthropologists detected inconsistencies in 69 cases, which were then split into 239 new cases. (Fig. Salted-over soil becomes sterile, and it is difficult and costly to restore for agriculture. The standards of identification processes in Germany were published previously in this journal. 7, D-67346 Speyer, Germany. The specific problems and work flows of forensic molecular analyses will be described in the following article. The northern section of the Sunda megathrust ruptured over a length of 1,300 km (810 mi). The typing results were compared to those obtained by the commonly used primer pairs by means of success rates. A new approach to short tandem repeat (STR) typing of DNA extracted from telogen shed hairs is presented. However, the patient did not agree, with the plan and thus had not received the. Mortuaries were erected in, tents or temple buildings including water and, electricity supply to allow working for 24, hours. The differences of the status of the lower, jaw should have been sufficient evidence for, specific denture was found on the lower jaw, (Figs. Indonesia's role in ASEAN cooperation turns out to be implicated in the conditions of the stability maintenance of the national economy. At the end of, March only three successful identification, automated fluorescent capillary electrophoresis, showing an incomplete profile. [133], The 2004 earthquake and tsunami combined is the world's deadliest natural disaster since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. 18). ted: 19. A few other African countries also recorded fatalities; one in Kenya, three in Seychelles, ten in Tanzania, and South Africa, where two were killed as a direct result of the tsunami—the furthest from the epicentre. Making use of short tandem repeat (STR) DNA typing data generated with AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus (PP) and AmpFlSTR COfiler(CO) kits, the software systematically compared each available STR genotype with every other genotype. At Phuket province, the island province's western beaches were struck by the tsunami. Other videos recorded showed that the tsunami appeared like a flood raging inland. 2001), the destruction of the World Trade Center in, 2001 (Brenner and Weir 2003, Budimlija et, bombing in 2002 (Lain et al. were done in small batches. Not only is it important to train personnel in each of the discipline-specific procedures but also to know and understand the other specialist procedures and organization of the identification workflow. Standards for forensic odontology, forensic molecular biology, and radiology are described in this chapter. This quake, together with the Good Friday earthquake (Alaska, 1964) and the Great Chilean earthquake (1960), account for almost half of the total moment. [94], According to the U.S. Geological Survey, a total of 227,898 people died. Besides that, a 10 m (33 ft) black muddy tsunami ravaged the city of Karaikal, where 492 lives were lost. Ghosh Roy. [79] The tsunami travelled 2.5 km (1.6 mi) at its maximum inland at Karaikal, Puducherry. The extent to which the remains were fragmented and affected by taphonomic factors complicated the identification project. Health concerns associated with disaster victim. A contribution to: ISFG: Recommendations regarding the role of forensic genetics for disaster victim identification (DVI by M. Prinz, A. Carracedo, W.R. Mayr, N. Morling, T.J. Parsons, A. Sajantila, R. Scheithauer, H. Schmitter, P.M. Schneider), Tsunami 2004. [141][142] The extensive international media coverage of the tsunami, and the role of mass media and journalists in reconstruction, were discussed by editors of newspapers and broadcast media in tsunami-affected areas, in special video-conferences set up by the Asia Pacific Journalism Centre. Information available to the local authorities, recommended. The various specialist disciplines involved must also adapt and coordinate their workflow procedures. [citation needed].The second and third waves came in 10 minutes intervals after the first wave. [121], Some economists believe that damage to the affected national economies will be minor because losses in the tourism and fishing industries are a relatively small percentage of the GDP. 2000, Lessig 2001, 2006). However, the huge demand has led to lower quality in the process, and some important materials were sacrificed to cut prices for those who were impoverished by the tsunami. Measurements from these satellites may prove invaluable for the understanding of the earthquake and tsunami. In Xaafuun, small drawbacks were observed before the third and most powerful tsunami wave flooded the town. [citation needed]. T. Ghosh, P. Jana, T.S. Since in most cases forensic medical experts are not part of the police, forensic pathologists and odontologists join the disaster victim identification (DVI) teams as external specialists. So the verbal AM description of, the tattoo led to the first problem. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami (also known as the Boxing Day Tsunami and, by the scientific community, the Sumatra–Andaman earthquake[10][11]) occurred at 07:58:53 in local time (UTC+7) on 26 December, with an epicentre off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. One of the few coastal areas to evacuate ahead of the tsunami was on the Indonesian island of Simeulue, close to the epicentre. Teamwork and, Identification of and investigation into cause, the disaster has occurred. Mené par Ewan McGreggor et Noami Watts, The Impossible , diffusé ce dimanche soir à 21h sur France 2, suit une famille séparée par le terrible tsunami de 2004… [12] It caused the planet to vibrate as much as 10 mm (0.4 in),[13] and also remotely triggered earthquakes as far away as Alaska. [120], While the tsunami destroyed many of the boats vital to Sri Lanka's fishing industry, it also created a demand for fibreglass reinforced plastic catamarans in boatyards of Tamil Nadu. Initial positive identification using direct contact was possible but also revealed the problems which can occur. [152], In the days following the tsunami, significant effort was spent in burying bodies hurriedly due to fear of disease spreading. [79] The worst affected area in Tamil Nadu was Nagapattinam district, with 6,051 fatalities caused by a 5 m (16 ft) tsunami, followed by Cuddalore district, with many villages destroyed. Many villages in the state of Andhra Pradesh were destroyed. Island folklore recounted an earthquake and tsunami in 1907, and the islanders fled to inland hills after the initial shaking and before the tsunami struck. Post mortem, stomatological specialists. [67], The greatest run-up height of the tsunami was measured at a hill between Lhoknga and Leupung, on the western coast of the northern tip of Sumatra, near Banda Aceh, and reached 51 m (167 ft). The matching algorithm was based on the search for: (i) direct matches to genotypes derived from personal effects; and (ii) potential kinship associations between victims and next-of-kin, as measured by allele sharing at individual loci. Die Opferidentifizierung nach dem Tsunami 2004 in Südostasien hat sich zu einer langfristigen multinationalen Kooperation entwickelt. [31] This energy is equivalent to over 1,500 times that of the Hiroshima atomic bomb, but less than that of Tsar Bomba, the largest nuclear weapon ever detonated. [14] Its epicentre was between Simeulue and mainland Sumatra. The rupture proceeded at about 2.8 km/s (1.7 mi/s; 10,000 km/h; 6,300 mph), beginning off the coast of Aceh and proceeding north-westerly over about 100 seconds. The total physical work done MW (and thus energy) by the quake was 4.0×1022 joules (40 ZJ),[32] the vast majority underground, which is over 360,000 times more than its ME, equivalent to 9,600 gigatons of TNT equivalent (550 million times that of Hiroshima) or about 370 years of energy use in the United States at 2005 levels of 1.08×1020 joules (108 EJ). fillings, inlays, onlays, partial dentures, combined dentures etc. [5][68], The island country of Sri Lanka, located about 1,700 km (1,100 mi) from Sumatra, was ravaged by the tsunami around 2 hours after the earthquake. [24] The earthquake produced its own aftershocks (some registering a magnitude of as high as 6.1) and presently ranks as the third-largest earthquake ever recorded on the moment magnitude or Richter magnitude scale. Seismographic and acoustic data indicate that the first phase involved a rupture about 400 km (250 mi) long and 100 km (60 mi) wide, 30 km (19 mi) beneath the sea bed—the largest rupture ever known to have been caused by an earthquake. In their report, the Tsunami Evaluation Coalition stated, "It should be remembered that all such data are subject to error, as data on missing persons especially are not always as good as one might wish". Lower jaw with the milk tooth (red circle) at this position. A number of common problems were identified based on these results such as strong peak imbalance in heterozygous genotypes for the larger short tandem repeat (STR) fragments after increased PCR cycle numbers, artefact signals and allelic drop-out. This is unusual since earthquakes of magnitude eight or more occur only about once per year on average. This was in, identifications of the victims following the. However, because of the initial quick response, this was minimized. was located in the region of the left thorax. Although the extreme western edge of the Ring of Fire extends into the Indian Ocean (the point where the earthquake struck), no warning system exists in that ocean. In many places, the waves reached as far as 2 km (1.2 mi) inland.[46]. One of the primary methods of identification is the forensic molecular genetic analysis. [75] A maximum inundation of approximately 2 km (1.2 mi) was measured, the inundated depths were 4–7 m (13–23 ft) and there was evidence that the tsunami reached the third floor of a resort hotel.

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