Form was symbolic, while the color remained formal. - Le Flâneur des deux Rives. Leroy C. Breunig and Jean-Claude Chevalier (eds), Paris: Hermann, 1965; Trans. Les ooeuvres et les personnaliés de Fernand Léger, Marcel Duchamp, Juan Gris et d'autres artistes liés au même mouvement de reconstruction des formes sont également étudiées. , A portion of the text was translated into English and published with several images from the original book in The Little Review: Quarterly Journal of Art and Letters, New York, Autumn 1922.. The works of the Orphic artists simultaneously present a pure aesthetic pleasure, a construction to the senses and a sublime meaning. According to Robbins, "To suggest that merely because these artists developed differently or varied from the traditional pattern they deserved to be relegated to a secondary or satellite role in Cubism is a profound mistake. Be the first one to, Les peintres cubistes (Méditations esthétiques), Advanced embedding details, examples, and help, Terms of Service (last updated 12/31/2014). Apollinaire et le livre de peintre on Amazon.com.au. ", Gris had "meditated on everything modern", painting "to conceive only new structures" and "materially pure forms". His works were "set apart" above and beyond many of the works of his contemporaries. In total, there are 46 halftone portraits and reproductions. Uploaded by And happily, writes Apollinaire, he "was able to find, in insults and mockeries, evidence that even the ill-intentioned could not disregard his work". Francis Picabia, Gabrielle Buffet et Guillaume Apollinaire au Luna Park. , Marie Laurencin, 1909, Réunion à la campagne (Apollinaire et ses amis), oil on canvas, 130 x 194 cm, Musée Picasso, Paris, Marie Laurencin, 1910–11, Les jeunes filles (Jeune Femmes, Young Girls), oil on canvas, 115 x 146 cm. Duchamp-Villon had this titanic conception of architecture. "The Great Parade: Cocteau, Picasso, Satie, Massine, Diaghilev—and T.S. ", Albert Gleizes, 1910, La Femme aux Phlox (Woman with Phlox), oil on canvas, 81 x 100 cm, exhibited Armory Show, New York, 1913, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Albert Gleizes, 1911, La Chasse (The Hunt), oil on canvas, 123.2 x 99 cm, Albert Gleizes, 1911, Nature morte (Still Life), requisition by the Nazis in 1937, and missing since, Albert Gleizes, 1912, l'Homme au Balcon, Man on a Balcony (Portrait of Dr. Théo Morinaud), oil on canvas, 195.6 x 114.9 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art, The art of Laurencin (and women more generally) brought a "new vision full of the joy of the universe", an "entirely feminine aesthetic" writes Apollinaire. Apollinaire hesitated to make any broad generalizations, noting rather Duchamp's apparent talent and his abandoning of "the cult of appearances". It was "a perfectly legitimate art, and surely a very subtle one". , Apollinaire stressed the importance of what he perceived as virtues of the plastic arts: purity, unity, and truth; all of which would keep "nature in subjection". It embraces vastly disparate work; applying to artists in different socio-cultural environments and settings. File:Guillaume Apollinaire, Les Peintres Cubistes, 1913.jpg; File usage on other wikis. It is the tendency of 'pure' painting. [Anne Hyde Greet] Home. , Included are four reproductions of the works by each artist (with the exception of Rousseau), and portrait photographs of Metzinger, Gleizes, Gris, Picabia, and Duchamp. Mais c’est en flânant sur les bords de la Seine, aux environs de Chatou, qu’en 1904 il fait la connaissance de deux amis peintres, encore inconnus, André Derain et Maurice de Vlaminck. Apollinaire made clear the great esteem held by the Cubist painters for his works, calling Rousseau the "Inhabitant of Delight". ", Pablo Picasso, 1909, Brick Factory at Tortosa (L'Usine, Horta de Ebro), oil on canvas, 50.7 x 60.2 cm, Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Pablo Picasso, 1911–12, L'Homme à la clarinette (Man with a Clarinet), oil on canvas, 106 x 69 cm, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Pablo Picasso, 1912, Nature morte Espagnole (Sol y sombra), oil and enamel on canvas, 46 x 63 cm, Lille Métropole Museum of Modern, Contemporary and Outsider Art, Pablo Picasso, 1912, Le violon (Jolie Eva), oil on canvas, 60 x 81 cm, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, It was Braque who, at the Salon des Indépendants of 1908, first exhibited to the public works whose geometric preoccupations began to dominate the composition. Apollinaire Et Le Livre De Peintre Greet, Anne Hyde. Duchamp. His pictures of flowers show the resources of charm and emphasis in the soul and hand of the Douanier. firstname.lastname@example.org Guillaume Apollinaire : Et moi aussi je suis peintre [Édition établie et présentée par Daniel Grojnowski], Le Temps qu’il fait, 2006. Sixth edition. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. on May 17, 2017, There are no reviews yet. Publication date 1913 Topics Cubism Publisher Paris, E. FiguiÃ¨re Collection duke_libraries; americana Digitizing sponsor Duke University Libraries Contributor Duke University Libraries Language French . Apollinaire Et Le Livre De Peintre. Certain artists associated with Instinctive Cubism were supported by Louis Vauxcelles, René Blum (ballet), Adilphe Basler, Gustave Kahn, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, and Michel Puy. Guillaume Apollinaire L'Esprit nouveau et les Poètes Text Editionsbericht Werkverzeichnis Literatur » » » Texte zur Baudelaire-Rezeption Texte zur Verlaine-Rezeption Texte zur Mallarmé-Rezeption . Kaligrama. This utopian expression stood for the aspiration and premonitions of artists who contemplated Egyptian, African, and oceanic sculptures; who meditated on various scientific works, and who lived "in anticipation of a sublime art". Add text, web link, video & audio hotspots on top of your image and 360 content. Few artists had been mocked during their lifetime as Rousseau, and even fewer had faced with equal calm the hail of insults. This was the third major text on Cubism; following Du "Cubisme" by Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger (1912); and André Salmon, Histoire anecdotique du cubisme (1912). In questioning whether Picasso's art is profound rather than noble, Apollinaire answers, "It does not dispense with the observation of nature, and acts upon us as intimately as nature itself. , A landmark in the history of art criticism, this essay synthesizes the aesthetic preoccupations of not just the Cubists, but of Apollinaire himself. The following other wikis use this file: Usage on en.wikipedia.org The Cubist Painters, Aesthetic Meditations; Usage on fr.wikipedia.org Les Peintres cubistes. C’est _____ qui le présente à des peintres connus. Gebraucht kaufen Preis: … Its social role is well marked, but it is not a pure art. He was in close contact with Le Bateau-Lavoir and its habitués—including Max Jacob, Maurice Princet, Picasso, Braque and Metzinger. 1980, Num 576-581, pp 111-119. Zustand: Very Good Softcover. In addition to Duchamp-Villon, other Cubist sculptors included Auguste Agéro, Alexander Archipenko, and Constantin Brâncuși.. See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive. The architect, the engineer should have sublime aims: to build the highest tower, to prepare for time and ivy the most beautiful of ruins, to throw across a harbor or a river an arch more audacious than the rainbow, and finally to compose to a lasting harmony, the most powerful ever imagined by man. Lehen Mundu Gerra hastean frantses armadan sartu zen (1914), eta zauritu egin zuten 1916 urtean. Its nervous draftsmanship, variety, charm, and delicacy of tones make this work's excellence. - Théâtre. Notes. Addeddate 2017-05-17 13:55:07 Bookplateleaf 0010 Call … Scientific Cubism was defended by Ricciotto Canudo, Jacques Nayral, André Salmon, Joseph Granié, Maurice Raynal, Marc Brésil, Alexandre Mercereau, Pierre Reverdy, André Tudesq, André Warnod [fr], Georges Deniker, Jacques Villon, and Louis Marcoussis. He also coined the term orphism to describe a tendency towards absolute abstraction in the paintings of Robert Delaunay and others.  Cooper's restrictive use of these terms to distinguish the work of Braque, Picasso, Gris and Léger (to a lesser extent) implied an intentional value judgement, according to Christopher Green. As an active figure in well-established literary journals from 1902 to his death in 1918, Apollinaire played a crucial role in the development of early modernism by founding his own artistic journals, by supporting galleries and exhibitions, as a collector of avant-garde art, and as an impassioned supporter of a diverse group of emerging artists. The painters Apollinaire places in this category are: Picasso, Braque, Metzinger, Gleizes, Laurencin and Gris. Le poète assassiné (1916) Calligrammes (1918) Drama. - Chroniques. Orphic Cubism was defended by Max Goth, Pierre Dumont and Henry Valensi [fr]. Apollinaire et le livre de peintre. *FREE* shipping on eligible orders. He deplored the violent attacks waged against the Cubist's preoccupation with geometry; geometrical figures being the essence of drawing. Tome I: L Enchanteur pourrissant. L Hérésiarque et Cie. La femme assise. ", Other terms have surfaced since. , As in the works of Robert Delaunay, color was for Picabia "the ideal dimension", one that incorporated all other dimensions.  But his most compellingly original stance can be found in Les Peintres Cubistes, in his analysis of the new art movement: "The new artists demand an ideal beauty, which will be, not merely the proud expression of the species, but the expression of the universe, to the degree that it has been humanized by light." L'esprit nouveau qui dominera le monde entier ne s'est fait jour dans la poésie nulle part comme en France. Read "Les Peintres Cubistes [Méditations Esthétiques]" by Guillaume Apollinaire available from Rakuten Kobo. Start now. "This majesty arouses and provokes the imagination... the immensity of things. Tome III: Alcools. Braque's role was "heroic", his art "peaceful and admirable", writes the poet, "He expresses a beauty, a beauty full of tenderness, and the pearl-like quality of his pictures irradiates our understanding. Apollinaire Et Le Livre de Peintre book.  Verkäufer T. A. Borden Books (Olney, MD, USA) AbeBooks Verkäufer seit 20. But according to Apollinaire, "geometry is to the plastic arts what grammar is to the art of the writer". Née, Patrick: La critique d'art d'Apollinaire en 1913. Apollinaire et le livre de peintre (Interférences, arts, lettres ; 4) (French Edition) | HYDE GREET, ANNE | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. , Francis Picabia, 1911–12, Paysage à Cassis (Landscape at Cassis), oil on canvas, 50.3 × 61.5 cm, private collection, Francis Picabia, c.1912, L'Arbre rouge (Paysage), Francis Picabia, 1912, Tarentelle, oil on canvas, 73.6 x 92.1 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York, To date, Duchamp's production had been too spars and differed considerably from one painting to the next. He was also in close contact with the Groupe de Puteaux (or Section d'Or), based in the western suburbs of Paris—including the Duchamp brothers, Gleizes, Picabia and again Metzinger (who associated with both groups early on). Princeton Blue Mountain collection, Artcurial, Art Moderne 1, Hôtel Marcel Dassault, Paris, Thursday 23 October, 2008, Chronique d'un musée: Musée royal des beaux-arts de Belgique, Bruxelles, Françoise Roberts-Jones, pp. , Apollinaire first intended this book to be a general collection of his writings on art entitled Méditations Esthétiques rather than specifically on Cubism. However, both terms are historical impositions that occurred after the facts they identify. Voir plus d'idées sur le thème calligramme, guillaume apollinaire, guillaume appolinaire. RMN-Grand Palais, Gleizes / Metzinger / Duchamp-Villon / Villon, Der Sturm, Volume 5, Number 8, 15 July 1914. Avancé Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) est un poète français dont l’œuvre incarne ‘l’esprit nouveau » du début du siècle. As a close friend of all the Cubists, and Marie Laurencin's lover, Apollinaire witnessed the development of Cubism firsthand. Instinctive Cubism includes a very large number of artists. Paris: Eugene Figuiere, 1913. Les Peintres Cubistes, Méditations Esthétiques (English, The Cubist Painters, Aesthetic Meditations), is a book written by Guillaume Apollinaire between 1905 and 1912, published in 1913. Artists, just as scientists, no longer had to limit themselves to three spatial dimensions. , Instinctive Cubism is, according to Apollinaire, the art of painting elements borrowed not from visual reality, but suggestive of the artist's instinct and intuition. , Published by Eugène Figuière Éditeurs, Collection "Tous les Arts", Paris, 1913, Les Peintres Cubistes was the only independent volume of art criticism published by Apollinaire, and represented a highly original critical source on Cubism. Contes retrouvés. Dance at the Spring is simply the expression of a plastic emotion experienced spontaneously near Naples". Une vie une oeuvre : les inspirations d'Apollinaire by franceculture — 25037 Une vie une oeuvre : les inspirations d'Apollinaire by franceculture — 25037 Bring your visual storytelling to the next level. [...] Each one of his pictures contains a judgment of the universe and his entire work resembles a nocturnal firmament when it is clear, free from all clouds and trembling with adorable lights. Oktober 1998 Verkäuferbewertung. The first, Scientific Cubism, is the art of painting new ensembles with elements borrowed not from the reality of vision, but from the reality of knowledge. , Majesty above all characterized the art of Gleizes, bringing a startling innovation to contemporary art, as few of the modern painters had done before. Verbandsmitglied: IOBA; Anzahl: 1. Tome IV: Les peintres cubistes.- Chroniques d art. In the fall of 1912 he revised the page proofs to include more material on the Cubist painters, adding the subtitle, Les Peintres Cubistes. Analogous to Picabia's titles, real objects, "are the pictorial arabesques in the backgrounds of Laurencin's pictures. Picasso's work, though not exhibited, set the precedent. The work of Gleizes, he continues, has "a degree of plasticity such that all the elements which constitute the individual characters are represented with the same dramatic majesty". Ebenfalls 1913 veröffentlichte Apollinaire den Essay "Les peintres cubistes" ("Die Maler des über eine Bewegung der er damit half zu definieren. ", Raymond Duchamp-Villon, 1911, Vasque décorative (detail), Raymond Duchamp-Villon, 1912, Croquis pour le Soleil, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, 1912, Study for La Maison Cubiste, Projet d'Hotel (Cubist House), Besides the artists of whom Apollinaire writes in preceding chapters, there were other artists and writers alike attached, "whether willingly or not", to the Cubist movement. "I love his art because it is not scornful, because it knows no servility, and because it does not reason. His works were the "fruit of a rigorous logic" writes the author.  Apollinaire compares the work of Gris with the "scientific cubism" of Picasso, "his only master", a type of drawing that was geometrical individualized, "a profoundly intellectual art, according to color a merely symbolic significance". von Colette Camelin u. Marie-Paule Berranger. Referring to the writings of Gleizes, Apollinaire cites the will of the artist to "bring back his art to his simplest elements". He uses forms and colors, not to render appearances, but to penetrate the essential nature of forms and formal colors... Perhaps it will be the task of an artist as detached from aesthetic preoccupations, and as intent on the energetic as Marcel Duchamp, to reconcile art and the people. With Albert Gleizes this function is taken by the right angles which retain light, with Fernand Léger by bubbles, with Metzinger by vertical lines, parallel to the sides of the frame cut by infrequent echelons." , The title for Picabia was intellectually inseparable from the work to which it referred, playing a role as actual objects. Peintres cubistes (1913) L'esprit nouveau et les poètes (1918) Né à Rome, fils naturel d’un officier italien et d’une aristocrate polonaise, Apollinaire passe le … In his book,The Cubist Epoch, Douglas Cooper divides Cubism into three phases: "Early Cubism" (from 1906 to 1908), when the movement was initially developed in the ateliers of Picasso and Braque; "High Cubism" (from 1909 to 1914), during which time Juan Gris emerged as an important exponent (after 1911); and "Late Cubism" (from 1914 to 1921), the last phase of Cubism as a radical avant-garde movement. - Les Diables amoureux. , In his analysis of the new art movement, Apollinaire makes a distinction between four different types of Cubism; scientific, physical, orphic and instinctive. Your privacy is important to us. Guillaume Apollinaire, jaiotza-izenez Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki (Erroma, ... Urte berekoa da Les peintres cubistes. and t.p. By submitting, you agree to receive donor-related emails from the Internet Archive. Fantasy does not lift you to fairylands, but it grants you all your joys. The first part, "On Painting" (Sur la peinture), is a manifesto for the new art form, consisting of seven chapters (22 pages), of which much of the text was written in 1912 and published in Les Soirées de Paris [fr] the same year. "Geometry, the science of space, its dimensions and relations, has always determined the norms and rules of painting. And despite the difficulties of classification, Cubism, as predicted by Apollinaire in 1913, has been called the first and the most influential of all movements in 20th-century art. "This literature, which so few painters have been able to avoid, disappears from his art, but not poetry. No table-of-contents pages found.  He elucidates the history of the Cubist movement, its new aesthetic, its origins, its development, and its various features. Guillaume Apollinaire, eigentlich Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary de Wąż-Kostrowicki (* 26.August 1880 in Rom, Italien; † 9. Les onze milles virges (1906) Les mémoires d'un jeune Don Juan (1907) Nonfiction. (Les Peintres Cubistes, p. 18), Guillaume Apollinaire's only book on art, The Cubist Painters, Aesthetic Meditations is an unsystematic collection of reflections and commentaries. Il commence à fréquenter les ateliers et les galeries. Picabia's paintings were so far from a priori abstractions that "the painter can tell you the history of each one of them. ", Georges Braque, 1908, Le Viaduc de L'Estaque (Viaduct at L'Estaque), oil on canvas, 73 x 60 cm, Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Georges Braque, 1910, Violon, verre et couteau (Still Life with Violin, Glass and Knife), oil on canvas, 51 × 67 cm, oval, National Gallery, Prague, Georges Braque, 1911, Nature Morte (The Pedestal Table), oil on canvas, 116.5 x 81.5 cm, Georges Pompidou Center, Paris, Georges Braque, 1911–12, Man with a Guitar (Figure, L'homme à la guitare), oil on canvas, 116.2 x 80.9 cm, Museum of Modern Art, Metzinger, following Picasso and Braque, was chronologically the third Cubist artist, observed Apollinaire. , Les Peintres Cubistes is illustrated with black and white photographs of works by Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Juan Gris, Marie Laurencin, Fernand Léger, Francis Picabia, Marcel Duchamp and Raymond Duchamp-Villon. nous menons une étude sur le rôle que joue apollinaire dans le développement du cubisme. The volume is valued today as a work of reference and a vintage example of creative modernist writing.  Also reproduced are photographs of artists Metzinger, Gleizes, Gris, Picabia and Duchamp. We do not sell or trade your information with anyone. Revue des Lettres Modernes Paris.  Neither phase was designated as such at the time corresponding works were created. Guillaume Apollinaire, Paris-Journal, 3 juillet, 1914, Hargrove, Nancy (1998). It was a "form and light of whatever is represented". Auch prägte er den Begriff Orphismus um eine Tendenz in Richtung absoluter in der Malerei von Robert Delaunay und anderen zu beschreiben.. Als Freiwilliger kämpfte er im Ersten Weltkrieg wurde 1916 schwer am Kopf verwundet – und später … , Gleizes had understood the influence of Cézanne on the Cubists, writes Apollinaire. Also reproduced in Du "Cubisme" (1912), Jean Metzinger, 1911-1912, La Femme au Cheval (Woman with a horse), oil on canvas, 162 x 130 cm, Statens Museum for Kunst, Denmark, Jean Metzinger, 1911–12, Le Port (The Harbor). Apollinaire et le livre de peintre. Exhibited at the 1912 Salon des Indépendants, Paris. In the section on Marie Laurencin, Apollinaire included a text a Henri Rousseau, first published in a review of the 1911 Salon des Indépendants (L'Intransigéant, 10 April 1911). According to Apollinaire this trend included Henri Matisse, Georges Rouault, André Derain, Raoul Dufy, Auguste Chabaud, Jean Puy, Kees van Dongen, Gino Severini, and Umberto Boccioni. Carte postale autographe, signée à Léon Bakst. Composed of two parts, the volume demonstrates the poetic vision of Apollinaire. Le mot est inventé par Apollinaire lui-même ; jonction des mots calligraphie et idéogrammes. A sculptor and an architect, light is the only thing that count for him; but in all the arts, also, it is only light, the incorruptible light, that counts. "It gives pictorial intensity to a painting, and this is enough to justify its legitimacy. As an artist, he placed Laurencin between Picasso and Le Douanier Rousseau, not as a hierarchical indication, but as a statement of relationship. Le renouvellement de l'écriture poétique du XXe siècle. This fictitious realm represented the "immensity of space eternalizing itself in all directions at any given moment". Surprise played an important role. La mamelles de Tirésias (1917) Fiction. Eliot". In 1913, Apollinaire published the essay Les Peintres Cubistes, Méditations Esthétiques on the Cubist painters, a movement which he helped to define. Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature 31 (1). *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Metzinger's paintings contained their own 'explanation'. Les Peintres Cubistes, Méditations Esthétiques, is a book written by Guillaume Apollinaire between 1905 and 1912, published in 1913. ", There was "nothing incomplete" in the works of Metzinger. pages, while every other page has the title Méditations Esthétiques, suggesting the modification was made so late that only the title pages were reprinted. For Apollinaire this was a case "unique in the history of art". His color was not just a "luminous transposition" without "symbolic significance". Apollinaire et les peintres: M. Russell et C. Carrà in Guillaume Apollinaire 15: Recours aux sources (2) Author BOHN, W Source. Les peintres cubistes (Méditations esthétiques) by Apollinaire, Guillaume, 1880-1918. Alle Exemplare dieses Buches anzeigen. Apollinaire coined several important terms of the avant-garde, such as Orphism (at the Salon de la Section d'Or in 1912) and Surrealism (concerning the ballet Parade in 1917), and was the first to adopt the term "Cubism" on behalf of his fellow artists (at the 1911 Salon des Indépendants, Brussels). - Calligrammes. Les Peintres Cubistes is illustrated with black and white photographs of works by Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Jean … - Critique. Marie Laurencin; Vermeer; Van Gogh. Vor allem mit seiner Lyrik gehört er zu den bedeutendsten französischen Autoren des frühen 20. . His works had "purity, scientifically conceived", and "from this purity parallels are sure to spring". "It was then that Jean Metzinger, joining Picasso and Braque, founded the Cubist City. Part II adapted from Guillaume Apollinaire. 49-60, The Cubist Painters, Aesthetic Meditations, Agence Photographique de la Réunion des musées nationaux et du Grand Palais des Champs-Elysées, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Cubist_Painters,_Aesthetic_Meditations&oldid=978936185, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 September 2020, at 20:24. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. , A man like Picasso studies an object as a surgeon dissects a cadaver. "Her art dances, like Salome, between that of Picasso, who like a new John the Baptist bathes all the arts in a baptism of light, and that of Rousseau, a sentimental Herod." Yet Les Peintres Cubistes appears only on the half t.p. Physical Cubism was supported in the press by the writers listed above, in addition to Roger Allard [fr], Olivier Hourcade, Jean Marchand, Auguste Herbin, and Véra. Apollinaire et le livre de peintre ", Jean Metzinger, 1910, Nu à la cheminée (Nude), dimensions and whereabouts unknown, Jean Metzinger, Le goûter (Tea Time), 1911, 75.9 x 70.2 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art. 2017 - Découvrez le tableau "calligramme" de Caroline GIL sur Pinterest. Jah , The second and larger section of the book (53 pages), under the heading "New Painters" (Peintres nouveaux), analyzes the work of ten artists most representative of the movement in the following order: Picasso, Braque, Metzinger, Gleizes, Laurencin, Gris, Léger, Picabia, Duchamp, and in the Appendix, Duchamp-Villon. Paris 2015 (= Collection: Colloque de Cerisy), S. 387-408. Easy editing on desktops, tablets, and smartphones. Guillaume Apollinaire, « Quatre nouveaux artistes français », 4 juillet 1914, dans Chroniques d’art 1902-1918, textes réunis avec préface et notes par Leroy C. Breunig, Paris, Gallimard, « Folio essais », 2002, p. 505.  Italian by birth, Polish by name (Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki), Parisian by choice, Apollinaire was a leading figure in early modernist poetry, a permutable figure whose work echoed the Symbolists, the Cubists and foresaw the Surrealists. - Poésie.  For Apollinaire, Metzinger had purity; "his meditations take beautiful forms whose harmony tends to approach the sublime... entirely stripped of all that was known before him. Für später vormerken. Exhibited Salon des Indépendants, 1911, Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Marie Laurencin, 1911, Les jeunes femmes (Die Jungen Damen, The young women), Marie Laurencin, Femme à l'éventail (Woman with a fan). De retour à Paris, le jeune poète se lie avec le Norvégien Edvard Diriks, alors très apprécié en France et surnommé par la critique le «peintre du vent». ", Marcel Duchamp, 1910, Joueur d'échecs (The Chess Game), oil on canvas, 114 x 146.5 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Marcel Duchamp, 1911-1912, Nude (Study), Sad Young Man on a Train (Nu, esquisse, jeune homme triste dans un train), oil on cardboard mounted on Masonite, 100 x 73 cm, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, Marcel Duchamp, 1912, Le Roi et la Reine entourés de Nus vites (The King and Queen Surrounded by Swift Nudes), oil on canvas, 114.6 x 128.9 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Marcel Duchamp, 1912, Nude Descending a Staircase, No.